Copper Ionization: How it works

Copper Ionization is the process of producing positively charged copper ions (Cu++) known as “free copper”.

Free copper (Cu++) is 800 times more powerful than bound copper. This allows for the control of pathogens with 1-3 PPM of free copper instead of 800-900 PPM of bound copper.

Copper ionization kills harmful (pathogenic) bacteria and fungi by penetrating the cell membrane and inoculating the organism.

Kingdom Ion™ controls bacteria such as E. Coli, Xanthomonas, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Erwinia, and Clavibacter which are killed within 2-4 hour of free copper exposure.

Copper ionization does not destroy “good” bacteria, as most non-pathogenic bacteria have a gram-positive charge.

The delivery of exact amounts of copper ions, a natural biocide and plant micronutrient, reduces or eliminates biological issues and increases plant nutrient uptake and germination rates.

Kingdom Ion™ is able to control pathogens under the limitations of the Federal Drinking Water Standards (FDWS)

Copper Ionization reduces pressure from pests and disease, increases germination rates, and decreases the use of expensive chemicals.

Copper ionization controls algae which reduces or eliminates problems with fungus gnats and shore flies.

The consistent and controlled supply of copper ions prevents fungal attacks as zoospores are killed instantly when exposed to free copper.

Copper Ionization increases calcium uptake.

How the Kingdom Ion™ system works

Kingdom Agriculture will analyze your water quality and irrigation system prior to suggesting pathogen control solutions.

Kingdom Ion™ is plumbed into existing irrigation infrastructure directly after fertilizer or nutrition tanks and is able to be bypassed if needed.

Kingdom Ion™ uses a flow meter to determine the flow of water in GPM in order to produce a consistent supply of free copper in PPM using our proprietary control algorithms.

Kingdom Ion™ produces a regulated supply of copper ions at the moment of watering, and the free copper concentration is within normal fertilizer standards.

Kingdom Ion™ offers a consistent and controlled supply of free copper (0.1 to 10 PPM) for pathogen control to target a host of bacteria, fungi, and disease.

Fungi and bacterial attacks are prevented by stabilizing the supply of copper ions which promotes healthier plants and stronger roots.

Kingdom Ion™ reduces or eliminates fungicide use.

Copper Ionization Research
The Copper Ionization treatments with 0.5 ppm or 1.0 Cu (nominal values) had no significant effect on the bacterial concentration, even not at the longest exposure time of 24 h (1440 min).
At least 2 ppm Cu were necessary to affect the bacterial concentration, dependent on the exposure time (see table 3). Up to 60 min no significant differences to the control treatment could be seen. Only at exposure times from 240 min on and Cu- concentrations of 2 and 4 ppm a clear impact onto the pathogens could be detected, but no complete elimination. The corresponding efficiency rates for 2 ppm Cu were 96.5 % and for 4 ppm Cu 99.5 %. A complete elimination (efficiency rate 100 %) of the pathogens was only to be seen after an exposure time of 24 hrs (1440 min) and Cu doses of 2 and 4 ppm.

Read More

The Copper Ionization treatment with the lowest Cu-concentration of 1 ppm showed significant reductions of the bacterial counts only at the longer exposure times of 4 and 24 hrs, but produced no complete elimination. Corresponding efficiency rates were 51 and 35 % respectively. With 2 ppm Cu a significant reduction was produced already after 2 hrs (48 %) and after 4 hrs (76 %). Complete elimination (efficiency rate = 100 %) was achieved after a exposure time of 24 hrs. The 4 ppm Cu-treatment produced a significant reduction (54 %) already after 1 hr. Efficiency rates of the 4 ppm Cu- treatment were 89 and 99.8 % after 2 and 4 hrs reaction time. Finally, the longest exposure time of 24 hrs resulted in a complete elimination of the pathogen.

Read More

At the shortest exposure time of 1 hour only the high concentration of 4 ppm Cu reduced the survival of bacteria significantly (efficiency rate: 65 %). At an exposure time of 2 hrs both concentrations significant effects could be observed (efficiency rates 91 and 94 % resp.). At longer exposure times of 4 and 24 hrs in particular the efficiency rate of both concentrations was about 98 %. After an exposure time of 24 hrs the concentration of 2 ppm resulted in an elimination of 99.7 %.

Read More

The Copper Ionization treatment with the lower Cu-concentration of 2 ppm showed significant reductions of the bacterial counts at exposure times of 1 hr and more. Efficiency rates after 1 hr were 96.5 and 95.5 % for the low and high concentration. Immediately (<5min) after treatment no significant impact could be recorded. Exposures times of 4 and 24 hrs completely killed the bacteria even at the concentration of 2 ppm (1.6 ppm Cu determined). A 2 hr treatment eliminated the bacterium completely at the high concentration and reduced the contamination to almost zero at the lower concentration, producing an efficiency rate of 99.6 %.

Read More

E. Coli
Abstract: The objective of these studies was to determine the kinetics of ionized copper for inactivating a suite of indicator organisms spiked into environmental water potentially used for irrigation on farms. E. coli, coliphage MS2, and Bacillus atrophaeus were propagated using standard methods then seeded into test waters at levels sufficient to follow a 99.99% reduction. Experiments were conducted at 25oC with two copper concentrations (1 and 4 mg/L). Samples were analyzed initially then over a 4 hour period. Copper concentrations remained constant providing a stabile residual in test waters. Results: Greater than 99% E. coli reductions were achieved with the low and high copper concentrations at 2 hours and at 30 minutes, respectively. Coliphage MS2 reductions of 98% and greater than 99.9% were achieved by low and high copper concentrations at 30 minutes and at 5 minutes, respectively. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were not reduced with the low or high copper concentrations over the 4 hour trials. Discussion: In conclusion, copper ionization appears to be effective for reducing bacteria and viruses at concentrations of 1 and 4 mg/L in water but is not effective for bacterial spores at either copper concentration. Copper provides a stable disinfectant residual in water and appears to be relatively effective for bacteria and viruses. Therefore, copper ionization may be a superior alternative to other chemical disinfectants for inactivating microbial contaminants in irrigation water used on farms. Read More
After 1 hour exposure a significant reduction of the viable counts could be observed at 2 and 4 ppm Cu resulting in efficiency rates of about 40 and 60 % respectively (see table 2 and 3). At an exposure of 2 hours also with 1 ppm Cu the bacteria were significantly reduced (efficiency about 58 %) and with the two higher concentrations efficiency rates of 79 and 99.6 % were achieved. After 4 hours the efficiency rates were 97.57, 99.81 and 99.96 % for 1, 2 and 4 ppm Cu respectively. Read More
Fusarium is a fungus. The spores are hardwalled and difficult to kill when in the dormant mode. Only when the Fusarium produce conidia it can be treated. Copper Ionization works against Fusarium in an indirect way. The system strengthens the roots, so the spores find it harder to penetrate into the roots of the plant. The level of Copper Ionization which produces goods results vary between 1 and 2 ppm. Read More
Over time there have been reports about the effect on algae by copper ionization.
Goldsmith Seeds in California has, in cooperation with Lars Marohn, made specific trials to test this effect. For Goldsmith Seeds it is important that the newly sown plants are not hampered by algae growth on the surface of the plugs.
Trays with plugs were watered for some weeks. Half with normal water and the other half with Copper Ionized water. Dosing rate 2.5 ppm.

Read More

The Copper Ionization treatments showed significant reductions of the bacterial counts at exposure times of 1 hr and more (see table 3). Efficiency rates after 1 hr were 96.2 and 97.1 % for the low and high concentration. Exposures times of 2, 4 and 24 hrs completely eliminated the bacterium. Immediately (<5min) after treatment no significant impact could be recorded. Read More
From Biologische Bundesanstalt fur Land-und Forstwirtschaft, Braunschweig, Germany we received an isolate of Phytophthora ramorum, European isolate from Rhododendron, which we did growth on carrot-oatmeal agar at 24°C for 10 days. After 10 days, the isolate produced zoospores. From a nursery, we received 4 bottles of Copper Ionized treated water in a nutrient solution with an EC-level of 2.0, not more than 1 hour old. The bottles were marked 1-2-3 and 4. As a control, we used demineralized water with an EC-level of 0.002. A piece of 1×1 cm of agar with Phytophthora ramorum with zoosporangia’s, we added 10 ml of treated water from bottle no. 1. We did the same with the other bottles and with the control. After 10 minutes, we looked carefully in the microscope for the activity of zoospores, released form the zoosporangia’s. The 10 ml water was then sieved through a microporefilter, 0.8 micromilimeters in diameters, which do not allow the zoospores to pass through. The filter was then placed directly on carrot-oatmeal agar in a Petri dish and placed in dark for 4 days at 24°C to control, whether the zoospores were just inactive or dead = haven’t loosed the ability to produce mycelium. Read More
From Petridishes from The University of Copenhagen with the fungi Chalara elegans on PDA, isolated from Kalanchoë, we took agarslices, 1×1 cm and placed them on 9 cm Petridishes and placed them in a growing chamber for a week at 24°C. The agarslices contained mycelium, conidiespores and resting spores from the fungi. From the AquaHort system, watersampels of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 ppm free copper ions were tested against mycelium, conidiespores and resting spores. As control, pure demineralised water was used, with 0 ppm Cu. 4 ml of the different samples was added to the Petridishes and reacted for 1 hour, 2 hours and 4 hours. After the reacting time, 1 ml of the water were placed in Petridishes with PDA and placed in a growing chamber for 1 week. The length of the growth was measured. Read More
Iron chelates
Anything relating to the water quality or the nutrition solution that can destabilize the iron chelates can cause the free copper ions to swap position with the chelated iron, and your free copper ions get chelated.

Read More

Efficacy of Water Treatment with copper ionization against the two-spotted spidermite Tetranychus urticae Kock in Rosa sp. var. High Society

Read More